Traditional Sumatran wet-hulled. Farmers pulp, ferment (in bags, 12 hrs) and dry for 3-4 days on their own farms, before pick up by the collector, Kardon. He then “wet hulls” the wet parchment down to green bean and patio dries for additional few days to export level.
Lintong refers to a specific area to the south of Sumatra’s Lake Toba. Apart from Dutch plantations in Aceh, this was where specialty coffee came first in Sumatra. Here we find a Tokeh named Kardon who collects from a group of 200 widows, and keeps their coffee separate. While their families have been in coffee for over 200 years, widows often face a knowledge gap after their husbands pass away. Kardon is one of our favorite partners in Sumatra, as his team, alongside support from our Sumatra-based stafff, assist these farmers with training around farming and first-stage processing. Kardon and his wife Yulinda (who manages the books) take delivery of the wet parchment from each producer, and further dries and hulls down to green bean in 2 locations near to Dolok Sanggul (near the south shore of Lake Toba). Kardon is a young guy (in his 30s), who took over the business after his parents retired from this coffee collection business around 2015. We were happy to be the first to contract coffee from this group through to export, and we think that the coffee does justice to the people behind it.
To talk about Sumatra we need to speak of its size. It’s large. Larger than Texas and Florida combined. In the middle of the island is a caldera called Lake Toba: the largest caldera from the largest volcanic explosion this world has ever seen. In this lake there is an island bigger than the country of Singapore. It is because of this lake that Sumatra has the largest rainfall seen by any coffee exporting country – the lake feeds clouds trapped in by the island’s 1500m tall mountains.
Sumatra is old. When Marco Polo visited the island’s northern tip back in 1292, he found the local people speaking Sanskrit, one of the purest remaining forms of the ancient language. When the Dutch East Indian Trading Company came, Aceh (and later Java) became the first commercial coffee origins that the world had seen.
Sumatra is big; I know we already said that, but it is really, really big. There are over 52 languages over four major ethnic groups (Acehnese, Minangkabaunese, Batak and Mala) covering an area over 170,500 square miles around. However big the island, however, there is only one government-authorized port of export – the 15 million person city of Medan. To get here, coffee has to travel as far as 375 miles, over massive mountains and on roads that are mostly still mud.
That’s 20 hours north to the producing regions Gayo Aceh, or 24 hours to the southern most Arabica regions in Kerinci. And this is the main reason that Sumatran coffee is hulled while wet, and dried while in the green. Called Giling Basah, this process starts with coffee parchment being dried to 30-50% moisture before being milled into green beans. Higher moisture during transport from the farm to the port can lend to the classic ‘earthy, musty’ flavors that you get in some Sumatrans.
Another source of Sumatra’s unique flavors dates back to the turn of the 20th century when Indonesia’s coffee crop was wiped out by leaf rust. Much of this was replaced with HDT (Hybrid de Timor) (Bourbon x Robusta), its direct descendant Tim Tim, or the more modern Sigarar Utang (Tim Tim x Bourbon).
And these are Robusta-Arabica hybrids; over the generations these have only added more Arabica through crossing Tim-Tim and with Sigarar Utang (Ateng). But there are pure Arabica strains as well, like Jember (Bourbon x Typica), USDA (Ethiopian Arabica transplant), and Onan Ganjan (Jember x Bourbon). So the genetic stock is absolutely unique.
But what makes Sumatra truly unique are Sumatrans. As a new generation takes the reigns, they are taking the country headlong into specialty. The past years have seen an explosion of washed coffees, naturals, honeys, new varietals, new regions and new ways of thinking about Sumatra’s role in specialty coffee. Not just locally, but regionally –Indonesian coffee has so much to offer, and so much of what comes out of Bali, Flores, Timor and Sulawesi comes through Sumatra.