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Lukani Losaa AMCOS

Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
Partner since: 2022 Traceable to: 450 members Altitude: 1215 Varietals: Kent, Bourbon

Cherries are sorted before pulping with wooden hand pulper, then fermented in clean water for 72 hours. Parchment is then washed and raised on dried beds for 9-12 days.

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Smallholders in Tanzania need to sell through a local cooperative, or AMCOS, in order to sell into either the auction or direct export channel. Many of these groups market themselves as ‘lean’, meaning that most of the money gets back to farmers instead of going towards staff or programming. In that context it’s hard to invest in specialty; however, the AMCOS of Lukani Rossa Village have done just that. With less than a container of annual production, they’ve slowly grown membership from their start in 1984 to 450 members in 2022. Moreover, they’ve managed to build and maintain a central processing unit (washing station), allowing for centralized cherry collection and processing (drying). They earn some savings back by having low-cost programming aimed at inter-cropping food staples in coffee gardens, and organic practices that can augment quality and yield.

Tanzania is a country rich in history, culture and resources. In East Africa, only Kenya has more wealth. But these numbers hide the incredible disparity you see between rich and poor, north and south, estates and smallholders. Only 7% of Tanzania’s harvest makes to the US – compared to 37% which go to Japan – and most of what arrives is in the form of block lot ‘Tanzania AA’ or ‘PB’. Block lots are bought from auction and blended to customer specification; 75% of Tanzania’s coffee is sold through auction in this way. The alternative to the auction is the Direct Export Channel, which came under fire from recent (2018) governmental reforms. The reforms were aimed at eliminating the grey area between three parties: farmers – organized into Agricultural Marketing Co-Operative Societies (AMCOS), mills, and exporters who are confined to operate at the auction level. In practice this cut off investment, cut short agricultural extension programs, cut out the direct export channel – reducing options for farmers and buyers alike. So, after 9 months these reforms were reversed, and the direct export channel is open again. But this is just the most recent in a decade-long roller-coaster that’s hampered Tanzania’s ability to compete for larger parts of the US specialty coffee menu. Lower production, aging plants, lack of irrigation, dwindling markets all sparked the TechnoServe-backed KiliCafe organization; an association of northern smallholder groups founded in 2001. The KiliCafe effort is credited with turning around coffee in this area, and it has successfully reinvigorated quality. But political forces, including corruption, caused this to collapse right around the time Crop to Cup started sourcing in the area. In the South we are looking primarily at Mbeya and Mbinga. Both are two-days drive from the capital and port city of Dar es Salaam. Both are large, rugged areas dominated by smallholding coffee farmers. And both are in a fluorescence. In the early 2000’s cuppers started noticing the variety of flavors coming out of the South. Compared to the North, where volumes are dominated by large estates, the South is home to diverse terroirs and profiles. Over the next two decades this interest has encouraged AMCOSs and exporters alike to get more involved, increasing both quality and production.